Tuesday, December 16, 2008

'The Thai House: History & Evolution' vocabulary

From The Thai House: History & Evolution (2002) by Ruethati Chaichongrak & others. (p 242) There is also a fantastic resource page (p 243) of "some trees and plants commonly associated with Thai houses" in the back of the book.


Bang- Raised. Often found at the beginning of village names.
Dao Harng ceremony- a pre-test to see that the house components are in their correct places.
Don- Raised. Often found at the beginning of village names.
Keub- A Thai measurement equivalent to 0.33 cm.
Klong- a canal.
Kranok- A commonly found decorative design of swirling tendrils & foliage.
Kwang tawan- Against the direction of the sun: the gable faces north or south. Generally inauspicious.
Long tawan- With the direction of the sun: the gable faces east or west. Generally auspicious.
Muang- A city or city state.
Muang fai- An ancient small-scale gravity feed irrigation system in northern Thailand.
Pa phae- The so-called 'goat forest,' the name given to community forests in northern Thailand.
Rasami phra arthit- A sunburst design found on gables throughout Thailand.
Sork- A Thai measurement based on the distance from elbow to wrist equivalent to 50 cm.

Construction Components

Bai raka- a certain type of roof finial
Blanor roof- a so-called Manila-style roof.
Charn- terrace
Chofa- roof finial found on temples.
Dunk- A central vertical roof timber.
Fa- wall panels.
Fa khat thae- woven bamboo wall panels.
Fa pakon- wooden wall panels.
Fa prong lom- loose-weave bamboo panels.
Hamyon- A carved wooden plaque above the door on the inside of the bedroom of northern houses.
Homrin- the space between the bedroom house and the kitchen house in northern Thailand.
Hong- a post span and a measurement of the Thai house.
Hua Thian- a round tenon on the top of house posts.
Janthan- rafter.
Jua- gable ends.
Kalae- crossed and carved gable ends foind on certain northern houses.
Kamyan- eave truss.
Kansart- extended eaves or roofs to protect the sides of the house.
Kantoey- eave bracket. Usually for chapel.
Khaira- soffits which extend from the walls or gables.
Khangkhao- a small piece of wood used to attach the rafter.
Khor song- upper section of the wall panel below the khue.
Klorn- latches.
Khue- cross beams.
Koey- a lean-to roof extended from under the house eaves found in Isaan.
Kongpat- part of the foundation.
Kradai- stairway.
Krua- kitchen.
Langkha- roof.
Lima roof- a hipped roof whose five ridges refer to the word lima or five in Arabic.
Loog fak panel- wooden wall panels with a raised center panel, found in the central region.
Mae ding fai- a cooking platform.
Maelae roof- a gabled roof type found in southern Thailand.
Na thang- windows.
Ngua- part of the foundation.
Ok-khai- the ridge beam.
Pae- purlins.
Panlom- windbreak on the gable.
Peek nok- soffit.
Phuen- floor.
Pratu- door.
Prueng- the rectangular frame used to brace the house floor and wall.
Ra- floor beam.
Rabieng- verandah.
Rae- a disc of thong larng wood used as a foundation.
Raan nam- a shelf for water jars in northern Thailand.
Ranaeng- laths.
Rawd- post tie beam.
Salak duey- wooden wedges and pins used to lock components together.
Samae- wooden nail.
Sao- posts.
Sao ek- the first post also known as the auspicious post or the king post.
Sao laeng ma- posts supporting the porch of northern houses which are seen as symbolising a dog guarding the house.
Sao nang rieng- posts used to support very large kansart.
Sao tho- the second post, sometimes called the queen post.
Tao- a bracket supporting the roof or kansart.
Teen sao- the base of a post. In the south these are not sunk into the ground and are often concrete.
Toen- the multi-purpose area outside the rooms of northern houses.
Tong- joists.
Waeng sord/waeng keeb- floor beams.
Yong- a carved panel below the window.

Types of Buildings

Dunk tang khan yao- the largest type of yao (north-east.)
Huen- a house (northeastern dialect.)
Hor klang- central hall.
Hor nok- bird pavilion.
Hor suadmon- prayer hall.
Hor trai- scripture hall.
Kappiya kuti- structure housing monk's food.
Kuti- monk's residence.
Lao khao- rice granary.
Long khao- rice granary (northeast.)
Pae loog buab- a bamboo raft.
Po- a wooden raft.
Ruen kalae- a northern house built of hardwood with the extending crossed eave boards.
Ruen khahabodhi- rich person's house.
Ruen khrua- kitchen.
Ruen klang- central hall.
Ruen krueng sab- house built of wood.
Ruen krueng pook- a house built of bamboo.
Ruen mai bua- a house built of bamboo.
Ruen mai ching- house built of wood.
Ruen norn- sleeping house.
Ruen loog- subsidiary building added for children to sleep in.
Ruen khwang- a house built crosswise to the other two in a group.
Ruen pae- a raft house.
Ruen sam hong- a house with three post spans.
Ruen yai mi khong- a twin house built of wood (northeast). the most prestigious type of house.
Ruen yai- a large house built of wood. Typical of a relatively well-off family.
Sala karn parien- preaching hall.
Teng na- a northern rice field hut.
Therb- a type of hut used for storage.
Thieng na- rice field hut (northeast.)
Toob tor lao- small lean-to adjoining the granary used as living accomodation.
Ubosot- ordination hall within a temple compound.
Viharn- temple building housing the Buddha image.
Yao- a temporary building (northeast.)
Yung khao- granary.

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